Ablation of the sympathetic nervous system by chemical sympathectomy is a standard model for the study of sympathetic nervous system regulation of immune function. We have previously documented that chemical denervation results in enhanced antigen-specific, but suppressed mitogen-induced, cytokine production by spleen cells. In our investigation into the mechanisms of sympathectomy-induced immune alterations, we first evaluated the peritoneal environment into which the protein antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin is administered. Denervation resulted in increased production of tumor necrosis factor- by peritoneal exudate cells and these cells appeared to have enhanced antigen presenting capability. We hypothesized that nerve terminal destruction may be inducing an inflammatory response by monocyte/macrophages and other cell types throughout the periphery that could differentially alter subsequent mitogen versus antigen-specific responses. However, no evidence of sympathectomy-induced systemic or local splenic inflammatory responses was observed, as indicated by measuring the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor- and interleukin-1 . These experiments indicate that an inflammatory response is not likely to be responsible for sympathectomy-induced immune alterations, eliminating a potential confounding factor in interpreting sympathectomy studies. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
Lesions of “surface overhealing” include keloid, hypertrophic scar, and burn scar. All are characterized by overabundant collagen deposition. The biology of these lesions is reviewed, suggesting that abnormal collagen metabolism results from alterations in the inflammatory/immune response. Practical and theoretical treatment plans are outlined based on methods that alter collagen metabolism, the inflammatory/immune system or rely on physical alterations (surgery, pressure).
RA, lupus and other connective tissue disorders may have abnormalities of sympathetic postganglionic function
The sympathetic nervous system stimulatesanti-inflammatory B cells in collagen-type II-inducedarthritis
Sympathectomy decreased CD4+ T-cells in lymph nodes - Sympathetic denervation leads to loss of an important regulatory mechanism in immune system physiology
Alterations in lymphocyte activity does not always correlate with changes in the proportions of T- or B-lymphocyte subsets. Sympathetic denervation leads to loss of an important regulatory mechanism in immune system physiology. This is apparently site specific in that both lymph node and spleen T-cell proliferative responses are reduced.
Article by Dr. Brian A. Smith
Patients with surgical sympathectomies have low plasma levels of DA and NE , whereas EPI:NE ratios are increased
Patients with surgical sympathectomies have low plasma levels of DA and NE , whereas EPI:NE ratios are increased (unpublished observations), suggesting decreased sympathetically mediated exocytosis and compensatory adrenomedullary activation.
Catecholamines 101, David S. Goldstein
Clin Auton Res (2010) 20:331–352
In vivo effects of surgical sympathectomy on intra. [Am J Otol. 1996] - PubMed - NCBI : "Am J Otol. 1996 Mar;17(2):343-6.
1Department of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, USA.
Bone modeling and remodeling are highly regulated processes in the mammalian skeleton. The exact mechanism by which bone can be modeled at a local site with little or no effect at adjacent anatomic sites is unknown. Disruption of the control of modeling within the temporal bone may lead to various bone disease such as otosclerosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget's disease of bone, fibrous dysplasia, or the erosion of bone associated with chronic otitis media. One possible mechanism for such delicate control may be related to the ubiquitous and rich sympathetic innervation of all periosteal surfaces. Previous studies have indicated that regional sympathectomy leads to qualitative alterations in localized bone modeling and remodeling. In this study, unilateral cervical sympathectomy resulted in significant increases in osteoclast surface and osteoclast number within the ipsilateral bulla of experimental animals. The mechanisms by which sympathectomy leads to increased local bone loss is unknown. Potential mechanisms include disinhibition of resorption, secondary to the elimination of periosteal sympathetics, as well as indirect vascular effects."
In conclusion it may be said that the results obtained from sympathectomy when present are very immediate. The ocular symptoms are the ones most happily influenced by the operation; the others such as nervousness, tachycardia, and goiter are problematical.
Remote Results.- In going over the cases operated by Jaboulay as far back as twelve and fourteen years, A. Charlier was able to find that a number of his patients had been cured completely. He was able to retrace 18 out of the 31 cases operated by Jaboulay from four to fourteen years before. Three of them were completely cured, 9 of them were so ameliorated that the subjective cure was a complete one, the objective cure, however, being incomplete; the 6 remaining cases were doubtful. All these patients experienced considerable benefit to their nervous symptoms; improved and no trophic disturbances of any sort followed as the result of sympathectomy.